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Dr. Ralf Gleichmann

Personally:

  • 1949 born in Arnstadt (Thuringia/Germany)
  • Study of physics at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg with specialisation solid state physics; dissertation to the subject of high voltage electron microscopy
  • 1983/84 Postdoc at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (solar cell research)
  • research to the defect structure of semiconductors and devices mainly using electron microscopy at the Academy of Sciences
  • hobbies: Bridge; cosmology

Email: ralf.gleichmann@gmx.de
Please use the subject "answer to orbitals" to guarantee that the mail passes the spam filter. Thank you.


Direct Structure Model of Matter

A singularity-free Big Bang necessarily demands a pre-history with agglomeration of bosonic neutron-matter. Bosonic nucleons are completely incompatible to the Standard Model of Particle Physics (STM) based on elementary, fermionic Quarks. But all the experimental results to the substructure of nucleons still allow a different interpretation of the nucleon structure. The up to now ignored and since decades forgotten alternative - investigated in this paper - assumes non-elementary Quarks with concentric relativistic lepton-orbital-substructure and comes up with a Direct Structure Model of Matter (the basic units may be truely set free in experiments). Extreme compression of such a kind of matter would result into complete annihilation, the ignition of a Big Bang. Prerequisite is a general principle of orbital formation that holds for any atomic or sub-nuclear dimension. The great advantage is a model with simple but logical structure that uses solely photons, electrons, positrons and neutrinos. It allows in addition a straight and easy explanation of the generation, structure and properties of Dark Matter. Furthermore it will be demonstrated that there exist now only two acting forces or fields: electromagnetism and gravity. Strong and Weak Interaction will be shown to be only effects related to the inner structure and dynamics of Quarks. A model that considers orbital structures in any level of matter enables a prediction of the Quark size with 4.1127 10^-17 m. This might be proved by the detection of a peak of the strenght of electron wide-angle-scattering around 30 GeV (measurement of the Quark-size). Contrary to the Standard Model the Direct Structure Model is able to explain in a truely logic way the experimentally observed individual spin contributions of the Quarks to the total spin of protons and needs no structure units with fractional charges.

Experiments measureting the spectral line width (or with higher resolution to the Lamb shift) resulted in a displacement/variation radius of charges in the proton < 0.9 fm. Assuming elementary Quarks (STM), this would directly represent the proton radius ('charge radius') and gives a corresponding volume of about 2.57 fm^3 per nucleon. A uranium nucleus would thus have a volume of 238 x 2.57 fm^3 = 612 fm^3. Electron scattering in the 0.1 GeV range resulted in a size of about 15 fm (radius 7.5 fm) for uranium nuclei and thus an actual volume of about 1750 fm^3. This enormous difference shows that the assumption of elementary quarks should be wrong. Electron scattering in the 1 GeV range revealed the so-called 'shell structure' of the proton and scattering effects up to radii of above 2 fm. Again, this is incompatible with proton radii < 0.9 fm. In contrast, the alternative Direct Structural Model of Matter can explain both findings in a simple way.

Introducing a gas-like electrofluid medium with at the very least high-speed-elasticity explains Dark Energy, the mechanisms of gravity and its relation to electromagnetism and the basics of Quantum Mechanics. In addition first crude models of photon and electron could be achieved. The Direct Structure Model allows singularity-free Big Bangs with a pre-history and without inflation within a cyclic 'multiverse' comprising uncountable independent partial-universes such as our Big Bang system. A universe within its true and direct sense cannot own any 'age' and has to be much much larger than our Big Bang system. Thus our Big Bang system (one amongst many comparable ones) doesn't result into an eternal thermal death and finally and simply contributes now again to other new Big Bangs.

preliminary remarks/supplements (pdf 101 KB; update 04/21)
structure model complete [part 1] (pdf 1663 KB; update 11/21 )
(change: general impovements and expansions, introduction, chapters 3.1 and 4)
cosmology [part 2] (pdf 704 KB; update 03/21)
(change: general improvements, introduction)
version of publication (pdf 801 KB; update 02/13 )
[there is a printing error in eq.(9) on page 80]



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keywords: nuclear physics, Direct Structure Model of matter, orbitals, orbital structures, nucleons, nucleon structure, quarks, quark structure, protons, neutrons, mesons, pions, myons, kaons, neutrinos, anti-gravitation, black holes, gravitation, pair generation, photon annihilation, antiparticles, strong interaction, weak interaction, theory of relativity, fine structure constant, dark matter, dark energy, photon, photon model, photon emission